Beginner's guide to hydroponics present different types of available hydroponic systems

Beginner’s Guide to Hydroponics: Setting Up Your First System

Are you intrigued by the efficiency of commercial hydroponics but unsure where to start? Our beginner’s guide to hydroponics is your roadmap to establishing a thriving hydroponic system in your commercial greenhouse. Discover how to navigate the selection of hydroponic system types, mix the perfect hydroponic nutrient solutions, and choose the best plants for your setup. Let’s embark on a journey to transform your greenhouse with cutting-edge hydroponic solutions!

Types of Hydroponic Systems.

Navigating through the diverse world of hydroponic system types can be daunting for beginners. Understanding each system’s functionalities and their respective advantages and disadvantages is crucial in selecting the best hydroponic systems for beginners. Let’s explore the most popular types: Drip, Wick, Aeroponic, Deep Water Culture (DWC), and Nutrient Film Technique (NFT). This is the first thing you need to understand from the beginner’s guide to hydroponics.

This image demonstrates a space-saving approach to wick hydroponics in commercial greenhouses. Plants are grown in vertical towers with wicks delivering hydroponic nutrients, maximizing the use of available space.

Vertical wick farming

  1. Drip System
    • How it Works: In a drip system, a network of tubing delivers nutrient solution directly to the plant roots. The solution is dripped into the growing medium, ensuring consistent nourishment.
    • Pros:
      • Versatile for a wide variety of plants.
      • Suitable for large-scale operations due to efficient watering of multiple plants.
      • Compatible with various growing mediums.
    • Cons:
      • Potential breeding ground for pathogens if not maintained.
      • More expensive to set up, especially recovery systems.
      • Requires understanding of plant water needs for effective setup​​.
  2. Wick System
    • How it Works: The wick system is a passive hydroponic method using capillary action to draw water and nutrients from a reservoir into the roots. It’s simple, with no need for electricity or pumps.
    • Pros:
      • Low maintenance and reliable.
      • No electricity required, reducing the risk of mechanical failures.
    • Cons:
      • Not suitable for large or nutrient-hungry plants.
      • Can lead to uneven absorption of water and nutrients.
      • Limited plant capacity due to the wick’s water and nutrient transportation limits​​.
  3. Aeroponic System
    • How it Works: Plants are suspended in air, with roots exposed to a nutrient-rich mist. This system maximizes nutrient absorption and oxygen exposure.
    • Pros:
      • Space-efficient and eco-friendly, minimizing water and nutrient waste.
      • Promotes faster plant growth due to constant nutrient and oxygen exposure.
    • Cons:
      • Higher initial setup and maintenance costs.
      • Requires consistent care; roots are vulnerable to drying out or damage without a consistent mist​​.
  4. Deep Water Culture (DWC)
    • How it Works: Plants are grown in a nutrient-rich water solution, with roots submerged and oxygen supplied through aeration.
    • Pros:
      • Simple to set up with minimal equipment needed.
      • Efficient for space, easily scalable.
    • Cons:
      • Susceptible to fluctuations in water temperature and pH levels.
      • Risks of drowning if roots are not properly aerated​​.

        A bucket with a plant suspended in a net pot and an air stone bubbling beneath: This classic DWC setup effectively illustrates the core elements.

        Deep Water Culture (DWC)

  5. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)
    • How it Works: A thin film of nutrient solution runs over plant roots in long, shallow channels, providing constant moisture and oxygen exposure.
    • Pros:
      • Efficient use of water and nutrients with little to no runoff.
      • Ideal for scaling in commercial operations, allowing for high yields.
    • Cons:
      • Requires close attention to water level maintenance.
      • Vulnerable to system failures like water pump or overflow drain issues​​.

Each hydroponic system has its unique characteristics and requirements. When choosing a system, consider factors such as the type of plants you wish to grow, the scale of your operation, and your ability to manage the system’s specific needs. This understanding will guide you in selecting a system that aligns with your goals and resources, setting you up for successful hydroponic farming. Let’s move through the beginner’s guide to hydroponics.

Choosing the Right Hydroponic System 

When it comes to establishing a thriving hydroponic greenhouse, selecting the right system is a pivotal decision. Whether you’re aiming for a DIY hydroponic greenhouse system or a more advanced setup, your choice will significantly impact your operational success. Let’s delve into beginner’s guide to hydroponics and how to make this critical decision, taking into account factors such as space, budget, and crop type, and explore some cost-effective options.

Comparison Chart to choose the best hydroponic systems for beginners:

FeatureDrip SystemWick SystemAeroponic SystemDeep Water Culture (DWC)Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)
Ease of Setup & MaintenanceModerateEasyAdvancedModerateModerate
Space RequirementsFlexibleFlexibleModerateCompactRequires sloping area
Suitable CropsWide varietyHerbs, leafy greensLeafy greens, herbs, fruiting plantsRoot vegetables, fruiting plantsHerbs, leafy greens, fruiting plants
  1. Consider Your Space Constraints
    • Compact Systems: If you’re limited on space, consider systems like the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) or Aeroponic systems. These are ideal for smaller areas or vertical setups.
    • Larger Spaces: For more expansive greenhouses, Drip and Deep Water Culture (DWC) systems can be more suitable, as they allow for greater plant spacing and are scalable for large-scale operations.
  2. Budget Considerations
    • Cost-Effective Options: The Wick and DWC systems are generally more budget-friendly, especially for DIY enthusiasts. They require fewer components and are simpler to set up.
    • Investment for Long-Term Benefits: While systems like Aeroponics and advanced Drip systems may require a higher initial investment, they can offer greater control and efficiency, potentially leading to higher yields and longer-term cost savings.
  3. Matching System with Crop Type
    • Leafy Greens and Herbs: Systems like NFT and Wick are excellent for plants with shorter growth cycles and smaller root systems, such as lettuce, spinach, and herbs.
    • Fruiting and Larger Plants: For larger plants or those with extensive root systems, like tomatoes or peppers, consider using a Drip or DWC system. These systems can better support the nutritional and space requirements of larger plants.
  4. Operational Scale and Efficiency
    • Small-Scale Operations: For beginners or small-scale growers, simplicity is key. Systems like the Wick or DWC are less complex and easier to manage.
    • Commercial Scale Operations: In a commercial setting, where efficiency and yield are paramount, investing in a Drip system or Aeroponics can be more advantageous due to their scalability and precision in nutrient delivery.
  5. Maintenance and Expertise
    • Consider the level of maintenance you can commit to. Systems like the Wick are low-maintenance, whereas Aeroponic systems require more attentive care.
    • Your level of expertise in hydroponics also plays a role. Beginners might favor more straightforward systems, while experienced growers might opt for more complex setups for greater control.
discover the different types of crop using Beginner's Guide to Hydroponics

Organic vegetable in vertical greenhouse

Choosing the right hydroponic system involves a careful evaluation of your space, budget, desired crops, operational scale, and personal expertise. Read the Beginner’s Guide to Hydroponics carefully to consider what to choose. By aligning these factors with the characteristics of each hydroponic system, you can make an informed decision that sets the foundation for a successful hydroponic venture in your greenhouse.

Beginner’s Guide to Hydroponic Nutrient Mixes.

In hydroponics, nutrient solutions are the lifeline for your plants. This liquid solution replaces the nutrients typically derived from soil. Let’s break down the crucial aspects of hydroponic nutrient solutions, essential for anyone venturing into hydroponics, as outlined in our beginner’s guide to hydroponic nutrient mixes.

  1. Importance of Nutrient Solutions in Hydroponics:
    • In hydroponic systems, plants receive their nutrition solely from the nutrient solution, making its composition vital for plant health and growth.
    • The solution must be carefully balanced to provide all the necessary nutrients in the right proportions.
  2. Mixing Nutrient Solutions:
    • Nutrient solutions are typically bought as concentrated liquids or powders and must be diluted with water.
    • The concentration of nutrients needs to be monitored and adjusted regularly to suit the specific growth stages of the plants.
    • pH levels of the solution should also be checked and maintained, as they affect nutrient availability.
  3. Role of Macro and Micro Nutrients:
    • Macro Nutrients: These are required in larger quantities and include Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K). Nitrogen is vital for leaf and stem growth, Phosphorus for root development and flowering, and Potassium for overall health and disease resistance.
    • Micro Nutrients: Elements like Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc are needed in smaller quantities but are equally crucial for the plants’ biological processes.

Choosing Hydroponic Plants Following Beginner’s Guide to Hydroponics

Selecting the right plants is a key decision in hydroponic farming. Here’s a guide to choosing hydroponic plants and an overview of hydroponic plant varieties for beginners that are suitable for these systems, focusing on fast-growing and high-yield varieties:

  1. Consider Growth Conditions:
    • Assess the conditions of your hydroponic setup, including space, light, and system type, as different plants have varying requirements.
  2. Fast-Growing Leafy Greens:
    • Leafy greens like lettuce, spinach, and kale are ideal hydroponic plant varieties for beginners due to their fast growth and minimal space requirements.
    • They thrive in systems like NFT or Wick due to their smaller root systems.
  3. Herbs:
    • Herbs such as basil, cilantro, and mint are excellent choices for hydroponic cultivation, known for their quick harvest times and continuous yield.
  4. Fruiting Plants:
    • For those looking to diversify, fruiting plants like tomatoes, peppers, and cucumbers can be grown hydroponically but require more care and a suitable system like Drip or DWC.
    • These plants need more space and stronger nutrient solutions, especially during their flowering and fruiting stages.
  5. High-Yield Varieties:
    • Choose varieties known for their high yield in hydroponic setups. Research and consult with hydroponic experts or local hydroponic suppliers for recommendations. In this Beginner’s Guide to Hydroponics we take overall and most important thing to pay attention at.

How to Set Up a Basic Hydroponic System in a Commercial Greenhouse

Setting up a basic hydroponic system can be an exciting venture. Here, in beginner’s guide to hydroponics, we will walk through the hydroponic system installation steps, ensuring you have a clear guide to start your hydroponic journey.

  1. Choose Your Hydroponic System: Based on your previous decision on the type of system (Drip, Wick, Aeroponic, DWC, NFT), acquire the necessary components.
  2. Assembling the System:
    • Reservoir: Begin by setting up your nutrient reservoir. This is where your nutrient solution will be mixed and stored.
    • Pumping System: Install the water pump in the reservoir, ensuring it’s powerful enough to circulate the nutrient solution throughout your system.
    • Delivery System: For systems like Drip and NFT, set up the tubing or channels to deliver the nutrient solution to your plants.
    • Support Structure: Ensure that your plants have a secure and stable structure to grow on, like net pots or grow trays.
  3. Lighting Setup: Install grow lights appropriate for your plants’ needs. Ensure they are positioned at the correct height and set them on timers to replicate natural light cycles.
  4. Testing the System: Run your system for a day before planting to check for leaks and ensure that all components are functioning correctly.
  5. Planting: Insert your chosen plants or seedlings into the system, making sure they are secured and have adequate space for growth.
  6. Monitoring: Regularly check the pH and nutrient levels of your solution, adjusting as necessary. Automate this process using innovative greenhouse system, perfect for setting up with the basic hydroponic system.

How To Maintaining Your Hydroponic System

Maintaining a hydroponic system is crucial for the health and productivity of your plants. Beginner’s guide to hydroponics provide some routine tasks and tips for troubleshooting common problems:

  1. Routine Checks:
    • Regularly monitor and adjust the pH level of the nutrient solution, ideally keeping it between 5.5 and 6.5.
    • Check the electrical conductivity (EC) to ensure your plants are receiving the right amount of nutrients.
  2. Cleaning and Replacing Nutrient Solutions:
    • Regularly clean your reservoir and replace the nutrient solution to prevent the buildup of salts and pathogens.
    • Clean and sterilize all components of your system between crop cycles.
  3. System Monitoring:
    • Keep an eye on the pumping and delivery systems for any signs of clogging or failure.
    • Regularly check for leaks or drips in the system, particularly in Drip and NFT setups.
  4. Plant Management:
    • Monitor plant density and prune or rearrange your plants to ensure they receive adequate light and airflow.
    • Watch for signs of plant stress or disease and address them promptly.
  5. Troubleshooting Tips:
    • If plants show signs of nutrient deficiency or excess, adjust the concentration of your nutrient solution.
    • Address any algae growth by reducing light exposure to the hydroponic nutrient solution and ensuring the system is clean.
    • For pump or aerator failures, have a backup system ready or repair the issue promptly to prevent plant stress.

Beginner’s Guide to Hydroponics Note:
Regular maintenance and attentive monitoring are key to a successful hydroponic farming.

Beginner's Guide to Hydroponics will make your sedition easier to consider what type of hydroponics is the best to start with

Farm man working in his organic lettuce garden.

Optimizing Your Hydroponic System for Best Results

Achieving the best results in your commercial hydroponic setup involves fine-tuning various factors to maximize yields while adhering to sustainable practices. Beginner’s guide to hydroponics find out all key strategies to optimize your hydroponic system:

  1. Optimizing Light:
    • Use LED grow lights for their efficiency, spectrum variety, and long life. Adjust the intensity and duration to suit the specific needs of your plants.
    • Implement light rotation or movement systems to ensure even light distribution across all plants.
  2. Perfecting Nutrient Solutions:
    • Regularly test and adjust your nutrient solutions to provide the perfect balance of macro and micronutrients.
    • Consider using organic or eco-friendly nutrients to enhance sustainability in your hydroponic system.
  3. Environmental Control:
    • Maintain optimal temperature and humidity levels in your greenhouse to promote healthy plant growth.
    • Utilize energy-efficient heating, cooling, and ventilation systems to reduce environmental impact and operational costs.
  4. Sustainable Practices:
    • Recycle and reuse water where possible to minimize waste and reduce water consumption (learn more).
    • Implement integrated pest management strategies that reduce the need for chemical pesticides.
  5. Financial Implications and Cost Savings:
    • While initial setup costs can be significant, hydroponic systems often result in higher yields and faster growth cycles, leading to quicker ROI.
    • Operational costs can be reduced through efficient use of water, nutrients, and energy, making hydroponics a cost-effective long-term investment.


Embarking on your hydroponic journey opens doors to efficient, sustainable, and high-yield farming. This beginner’s guide to hydroponics has walked you through setting up and maintaining your hydroponic system, choosing hydroponic plants, and optimizing your setting up a basic hydroponic system for the best results. Hydroponic farming not only maximizes space and resources but also offers an exciting and rewarding way to grow a variety of crops. We encourage you to explore the potential of hydroponics and join the growing community of innovative farmers.

FAQ Section for Beginner’s Guide to Hydroponics.

  • Can you grow tomatoes in a hydroponic system? Yes, tomatoes thrive in hydroponic systems, especially in setups like Drip and DWC. They require careful management of nutrient solutions and consistent support structures due to their size.
  • How often should I change the nutrient solution in my hydroponic system? Generally, the nutrient solution should be changed every two to three weeks, but this can vary depending on the system and plant requirements.
  • What is the best hydroponic system for beginners? Wick and DWC systems are often recommended for beginners due to their simplicity and ease of maintenance.
  • Can hydroponic systems be used outdoors? Yes, hydroponic systems can be adapted for outdoor use, but they require additional considerations for weather protection and environmental control.
  • How do I prevent algae growth in my hydroponic system? Limiting light exposure to the nutrient solution and maintaining cleanliness in the system are effective ways to prevent algae growth.

By addressing these common queries, we hope to provide clarity and confidence as you navigate the rewarding path of hydroponic farming.

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